1963
THIS YEAR IN LAS VEGAS ...

WHILE IN THE WORLD ...

Casinos Kept to Silence to Honor JFK
On November 22, after the assassination of president John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the casinos on the Strip stop their activity for one hour.

Viva La Vegas
Starring Elvis Presley and Ann-Margret, this is one of the most famous movies ever filmed in Las Vegas.
Elvis' character is a pilot (Lucky Jackson), who needs to buy an engine for his race car, to participate to the first Las Vegas Gran Prix. But he will fall in love for Rusty Martin (Ann-Margret).

McCarran International Airport
The old McCarran Field terminal closes. It is substituted by a new terminal, designed to bear the ever-increasing passenger volume, amounting to nearly 1.5 million, this year.

The Assassination of JFK
On November 22, at 12:30PM, President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is assassinated. He is shot while he is onboard of his black Lincoln convertible, together with his wife Jacqueline and Texas governor John Connally.
The whole scene will be recorded by an amateur movie camera. A desperate run to the Parkland Memorial Hospital will be useless. He will be pronounced dead 30 minutes later.
Soon after, the police arrests Lee Harvey Oswald, accused to have fired from his window, located at the sixth floor. He will be shot two days later, while he is being transferred to another jail.

A Limit to Nuclear Tests
Since many years, it has become apparent that limits should be put to the development and deployment of nuclear weapons. However, no treaty has been signed so far, lacking ways to control that it will be observed.
With the development of spy satellites, in early 1960s, inspections finally become possible. Furthermore, the Cuban Crisis has shown the worldwide risks of an indiscriminate deployment of nuclear weapons.
This year, a first small step is done. 100 nations sign the Limited Test-Ban Treaty, which bans all atmospheric, underwater and space nuclear testing. Only China and France do not sign, but they will do it in 1964.

Kenya Finally Gains Independence
The British colony of Kenya finally becomes an independent nation within the British Commonwealth. Jomo Kenyatta is elected the first prime minister of the free Kenya, and he will govern it until his death, in 1978.
Kenya's national movements became stronger after the Second World War, and in 1952, Britain sent troops to stop the Mau Mau rebellion. Over about 4 years, about 13,000 people had been killed and 80,000 jailed.
When Kenyatta, a political leader educated at the London School of Economics, came back to Kenya, he was accused to lead the Mau Mau (he will always deny that charge), and imprisoned until 1961.

The Nature of Quasars
Astronomer Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, proves that a class of quasi-stellar radio sources (dubbed "quasars"), are the most distant astronomical sources known so far.
Beforehand, quasars were believed to be very close to the Earth. Schmidt succeeds detecting the ''red shift'' in the optical spectrum of quasar 3C 273, which indicates that it is receding from us at high speed.
By applying the Hubble law, he estimates for that quasar a distance of 1.5 billion light-years. In order to be seen from the Earth, quasars must be extraordinarily luminous.

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