Death of Roy Martin
On December 27, Doctor Roy Martin dies after a heart attack, one year after his retirement.
He had begun his service in Las Vegas since its birth. He has built the first hospital in Las Vegas, by remodeling it and making it more efficient over the years.

The Kursk battle
After the victory of Stalingrad, the Red Army starts a counteroffensive in Caucasus. But the Nazi troops find successes in Kharkov and Belgorod, and on July 5 they begin a massive attack in the Kursk region.
The Nazi forces are of about 900,000 soldiers and 3,000 tanks, but the Red Army opposes equally impressive forces. The biggest tank battle in history has just started. After one week of furious fights, the German troops are eventually stopped.
About half of the tanks, of both sides, will be destroyed. In the following months, the Red Army will start its counterattack along various fronts, and Hitler will have to abandon his dream to conquer Russia.

The end of the Warsaw Ghetto
The Warsaw Ghetto was of about half million people, when Germans started sealing it, and deporting thousands of Jews to the Treblinka extermination camp. The Jews of the Ghetto soon realized their only chance was resistance.
In January, they kill 50 Germans, which in turn execute 1,000 Jews for retaliation. But when, on April 19, Nazi troops enter the Ghetto to deport the last Jews, they find 1,500 people ready to resist to death.
The fight lasts until May 8, and hundreds of Germans are killed. At the very end, when it becomes clear that the rebels will not have any chance, they prefer to commit suicide rather than to be captured.

The invasion of Sicily
On July 10, the Allied troops start from Sicily the liberation of Italy. By the middle of August, they have conquered the whole Sicily, while German and Italian troops are escaping to the mainland.
Since Mussolini refuse to surrender, on July 24 he his dismissed by the Fascist Grand Council. Soon after King Vittorio Emanuele III orders to arrest the Duce, and orders Pietro Badoglio to form a new government.
Badoglio starts to treat with the Allies, and orders Italian soldiers to surrender. However, a Nazi commando rescues Mussolini and he forms the ''Salo' Republic'', to coordinate the final resistance to the Allies.

The discovery of DNA
Oswald Avery, a bacteriologist of the Rockfeller Institute in New York, discovers that the deoxyribonucleic acid (in short DNA) is a molecule able to store and transmit genetic information.
Since many years, he was studying the transmission of information between two forms of pneumococcus, conducting a thorough search of the agent responsible for it.
After having discarded many potential substances, he finds that DNA plays a fundamental role in transmitting some genetic characters, able to transform an innocuous species of pneumococcus into a virulent one.

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